How to Create a Mind by Ray Kurzweil
How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed, is a non-fiction book about brains, both human and artificial, by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil. Kurzweil describes a series of thought experiments which suggest to him that the brain contains a hierarchy of pattern recognizers.
Based on this he introduces his Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind. He says the neocortex contains 300 million very general pattern recognition circuits and argues that they are responsible for most aspects of human thought. Kurzweil then explains that a computer version of this design could be used to create an artificial intelligence more capable than the human brain. It would employ techniques such as hidden Markov models and genetic algorithms, strategies Kurzweil used successfully in his years as a commercial developer of speech recognition software.
Artificial brains will require massive computational power, so Kurzweil reviews his law of accelerating returns which explains how the compounding effects of exponential growth will deliver the necessary hardware in only a few decades.